This study describes a generalized cross-patient seizure-forecasting approach using recurrent neural networks with ultra-long-term subcutaneous EEG (sqEEG) recordings. Data from six patients diagnosed with refractory epilepsy and monitored with an sqEEG device were used to develop a generalized algorithm for seizure forecasting using long short-term memory (LSTM) deep-learning classifiers. Electrographic seizures were identified by a board-certified epileptologist. One-minute data segments were labeled as preictal or interictal based on their relationship to confirmed seizures. Data were separated into training and testing data sets, and to compensate for the unbalanced data ratio in training, noise-added copies of preictal data segments were generated to expand the training data set. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the training data were used to normalize all data, preserving the pseudo-prospective nature of the analysis. Different architecture classifiers were trained and tested using a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation method, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the performance classifiers.
The importance of each input signal was evaluated using a leave-one-signal-out method with repeated training and testing for each classifier. Cross-patient classifiers achieved performance significantly better than chance in four of the six patients and an overall mean AUC of 0.602 ± 0.126 (mean ± SD). A time in warning of 37.386% ± 5.006% (mean ± std) and sensitivity of 0.691 ± 0.068 (mean ± std) were observed for patients with better than chance results. Analysis of input channels showed a significant contribution (p < .05) by the Fourier transform of signals channels to overall classifier performance. The relative contribution of input signals varied among patients and architectures, suggesting that the inclusion of all signals contributes to robustness in a cross-patient classifier.
These early results show that it is possible to forecast seizures training with data from different patients using two-channel ultra-long-term sqEEG.
Tal Pal Attia, Pedro F. Viana, Mona Nasseri, Jonas Duun-Henriksen, Andrea Biondi, Joel S. Winston, Isabel P. Martins, Ewan S. Nurse, Matthias Dümpelmann, Gregory A. Worrell, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Dean R. Freestone, Troels W. Kjaer, Benjamin H. Brinkmann, and Mark P. Richardson.
Published on 20 Apr 2022